Early Childhood Education

pcc.edu/programs/child-family-studies/

Career Program and Description

The Child and Family Studies department offers associate degrees and certificates in early childhood education and human services for those interested in working with children, families, individuals and communities.  Due to an increased focus on the importance of early learning and a rising demand for social services, national and statewide job growth and employment is projected to be much higher than average.

Early Childhood Education

As a nationally accredited program, the Early Childhood Education (ECE) program prepares teachers and home care providers of young children, ages birth through five, to plan environments, develop suitable learning experiences, and work closely with families in childhood care and education contexts. They also supervise play and physical needs of small children, organize daily activities, keep records of children’s progress, and confer with parents. Early education graduates may also work in related fields such as child care resource and referral.

The ECE coursework is designed to meet the needs of the working student. Coursework for the Child Care Aide and Early Childhood Education Career Pathway Certificates and AAS degree can be completed through a combination of courses offered online, in the evening, and on Saturdays.

Portland State University (PSU) allows for up to 100% of Early Childhood Education (ECE) and Parenting Education and Family Life (HEC) transfer credit toward the BS in Child, Youth, and Family Studies degree program, or PSU's Degree Completion program.

Degrees and Certificates Offered

Associate of Applied Science

Early Childhood Education

Less than One-Year: Career Pathway Certificate

Childcare Aide
Early Childhood Education

Academic Prerequisites

  • None

Academic Requirements

  • Complete all ECE and HEC courses with a grade of "C" or "P" or better.
  • Students may retake classes in order to meet the grade requirement with the exception of ECE 130A, ECE 130B, ECE 130C,ECE 131A, ECE 131B,  ECE 133ECE 134, and ECE 135. These classes may be re-enrolled in only once after a student receives a grade less than "C". SAC approval is required for any student desiring to attempt any ECE course for the third time.
  • Admittance to practicum is based on previously completed coursework, availability, and department permission.  To be considered for practicum, students must:
    1. Be enrolled in the State of Oregon Office of Child Care, Central Background Registry; 
    2. Submit verification of measles immunization.
    3. Submit verification of negative TB Skin Test within the last year;
    4. Possess a current Oregon Food Handlers Certificate.
  • Costs associated with required practicum documentation are the sole responsibility of the student.

Non-Academic Prerequisites

  • An initial advising/information session with a Child and Family Studies department advisor. 

Non-Academic Requirements

  • Criminal Background Check

    • All PCC students enrolled in a health care or child care program, including Early Childhood Education with requirements for practical experience of field training may have to pass a Criminal History Check (CHC) as a condition of their acceptance into a medical or other facility for training.

    • Students who do not pass the CHC will be unable to complete some course requirements and will be ineligible to participate in training at affiliated practicum sites, to sit for licensure or certification exams, or be hired for some professional positions. If you believe that your past history may interfere with your ability to complete the program of study or to obtaining licensure, or certification in your chosen field, you should contact the appropriate state board or program director.

  • Counseling
    • The field of Early Childhood Education is intense, dynamic, and physically and emotionally challenging. Working in the field may bring up strong emotions as well as current, past, and unresolved psychological trauma from childhood.  It is strongly recommended that students enrolled in the ECE program seek professional counseling while participating in the program. Free and confidential counseling services are available to all PCC students at no cost through PCC Counseling Services.
  • The Early Childhood Education program is planned as a career pathway to accommodate the part-time as well as the full-time student. A Child Care Aide certificate provides foundational entry-level skills for a child care aide in an Oregon licensed child care facility. An Early Childhood Education certificate provides entry level child care skills and meets the minimum requirements for a child care teacher in an Oregon licensed child care facility. The Associate of Applied Science degree qualifies a student to become a head teacher in a child care facility licensed by the State of Oregon Office of Child Care. The National Association for the Education of Young Children’s (NAEYC) suggests that minimum training for teachers in early childhood programs is an AAS degree in ECE. All required courses for the certificates apply to the AAS degree.

  • Certificate classes may apply toward a CDA credential. CDA and Oregon Registry credentials may articulate into certificate level coursework.

Early Childhood Education AAS Degree

Minimum 90 credits. Students must also meet Associate Degree Comprehensive Requirements and Associate of Applied Science Requirements. Students must complete a total of four courses of General Education. Some courses specified within the program may be used as General Education. In addition to required courses in the program of study, students must satisfy MTH 58/65 competency. Students should consult with program advisors for course planning.

Early Childhood Education Degree Courses

ECE 120Introduction to Early Education and Family Studies3
ECE 121Observation and Guidance I3
ECE 122IEnvironments and Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers4
ECE 123PEnvironments and Curriculum for Preschool4
ECE 124Multicultural Practices: Exploring Our Views3
ECE 130APracticum Seminar 1 22
ECE 130BPracticum Seminar 2 22
ECE 130CPracticum Seminar 3 22
ECE 133Practicum 1 in Early Childhood Education3
or ECE 131A Practicum for Experienced Teachers 1
ECE 134Practicum 2 in Early Childhood Education3
or ECE 131B Practicum for Experienced Teachers 2
ECE 135Practicum 3 in Early Childhood Education3
ECE 196Teaming and Communication in ECE Settings2
ECE 200The Professional in Early Education and Family Studies3
ECE 221Observation and Guidance II3
ECE 224Multicultural Practice: Curriculum & Implementation3
ECE 232Math and Science for Young Children3
ECE 234Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Education3
ECE 236Language and Literacy in Early Childhood Education3
ECE 262Health, Safety and Nutrition for the Young Child3
HE 112Standard First Aid and Emergency Care 11
HEC 201Family Partnerships in Education3
HEC 226Child Development *4
HUS 102Mental Health First Aid: Adult1
HE 295
PE 295
Health and Fitness for Life
and Health and Fitness for Life Lab
3
WR 121College Composition4
or WR 122 Intermediate College Composition
or WR 227 Technical and Professional Writing 1
ECE Electives10
General Education: 3 courses
Total Credits90
*

 Could be used as General Education.

1

Students with a valid CPR card may receive non-traditional credit.

2

Students must enroll in practicum seminar each term they take practicum.

Early Childhood Education Degree Electives 

BA 111Introduction to Accounting3
BA 177Payroll Accounting3
BA 223Principles of Marketing4
BA 224Human Resource Management3
BA 250Small Business Management3
BA 285Human Relations-Organizations3
CIS 120Digital Literacy4
COMM 100Introduction to Communication4
ECE 104Gender and Sexuality in Early Childhood1
ECE 132Early Childhood Field Work2
ECE 170Coaching and Mentoring in Early Education and Family Studies1
ECE 171AInfant Toddler Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support1
ECE 171BPreschool Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support1
ECE 175AInfant/Toddler Caregiving: Learning and Development1
ECE 175B1
ECE 175CInfant/Toddler Caregiving: Social/Emotional Growth1
ECE 175D1
ECE 177Tiny to Tall: Making Mixed Age Groupings Work1
ECE 183Seven Essential Life Skills Every Child Needs1
ECE 185Planning Fun and Meaningful Field Trips for Young Children1
ECE 186Nature and Gardening with Young Children1
ECE 1881
ECE 195Boys in Early Childhood Education1
ECE 1981
ED 100Introduction to Education for Paraeducators3
ED 102Digital and Visual Communication Fundamentals3
ED 112Introduction to Children's Literature3
ED 1152
ED 131Applied Learning Theory3
ED 136Learning with Technology3
ED 268Introduction to Developmental Disabilities3
ED 269Introduction to Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities3
ESR 171Environmental Science: Biological Perspectives *4
ESR 172Environmental Science: Chemical Perspectives *4
ESR 173Environmental Science: Geological Perspectives *4
HEC 140Introduction to Family Life Education3
HEC 1571
HEC 212Parent-Child Relations3
HUS 101Introduction to Human Services3
HUS 103Introduction to Home Visiting2
HUS 104Introduction to Trauma Informed Care1
HUS 105Introduction to Crisis Intervention1
HUS 106Mental Health First Aid: Youth1
HUS 115Infant and Toddler Mental Health3
HUS 121Family and Human Systems3
HUS 131Models and Systems of Human Service Delivery3
HUS 141Direct Service Methods3
MTH 211Foundations of Elementary Math I *4
PSY 222Family & Intimate Relationships *4
PSY 240Personal Awareness and Growth *4
SOC 213Diversity in the United States *4
SOC 214AIllumination Project I: Interactive Social Justice Theater *4
SOC 214BIllumination Project II: Interactive Social Justice Theater *4
SOC 214CIllumination Project III: Interactive Social Justice Theater *4
SOC 218Sociology of Gender *4
WR 122Intermediate College Composition4
Up to 3 credits of American Sign Language
Up to 3 credits of Foreign Language
Up to 3 credits of CG
Up to 3 credits of ESOL
Up to 3 credits of MSD3
*

Could be used as General Education

Less than One-Year: Career Pathway Certificate

Childcare Aide
Early Childhood Education

Childcare Aide Career Pathway Certificate

Minimum 22 credits. Students must meet all certificate requirements. The Childcare Aide Career Pathway Certificate is a Career Pathway. All courses are contained in the Early Education and Family Studies AAS Degree.

Childcare Aide Certificate Courses

ECE 120Introduction to Early Education and Family Studies3
ECE 121Observation and Guidance I3
ECE 122IEnvironments and Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers4
or ECE 123P Environments and Curriculum for Preschool
ECE 124Multicultural Practices: Exploring Our Views3
ECE 130APracticum Seminar 12
ECE 133Practicum 1 in Early Childhood Education3
or ECE 131A Practicum for Experienced Teachers 1
ECE 262Health, Safety and Nutrition for the Young Child3
HE 112Standard First Aid and Emergency Care1
Total Credits22

Early Childhood Education Career Pathway Certificate

Minimum 36 credits. Students must meet all certificate requirements. The Early Education and Family Studies Certificate is a Career Pathway. All courses are contained in the Early Education and Family Studies AAS Degree.

Early Childhood Education Certificate Courses

ECE 120Introduction to Early Education and Family Studies3
ECE 121Observation and Guidance I3
ECE 122IEnvironments and Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers4
ECE 123PEnvironments and Curriculum for Preschool4
ECE 124Multicultural Practices: Exploring Our Views3
ECE 130APracticum Seminar 1 22
ECE 130BPracticum Seminar 2 22
ECE 133Practicum 1 in Early Childhood Education3
or ECE 131A Practicum for Experienced Teachers 1
ECE 134Practicum 2 in Early Childhood Education3
or ECE 131B Practicum for Experienced Teachers 2
ECE 196Teaming and Communication in ECE Settings2
ECE 262Health, Safety and Nutrition for the Young Child3
HE 112Standard First Aid and Emergency Care 11
HEC 201Family Partnerships in Education3
Total Credits36
1

Students with a valid CPR card may receive non-traditional credit.

2

Students must enroll in practicum seminar each term they take practicum.

ECE 104. Gender and Sexuality in Early Childhood. 1 Credit.

Introduces the development of sexuality and gender from birth to age eight. Examines gender creativity and fluidity, including how to work with young children and families in an early childhood environment. Audit available.

ECE 120. Introduction to Early Education and Family Studies. 3 Credits.

Introduces the foundations of early childhood education and family studies. Covers the history, scope, current issues and trends, focusing on programs and services for children, infancy to six years of age. Includes an emphasis on development, developmentally appropriate practices and observation of young children and professionals. Requires 2 hours per week of observation/participation. Students must enroll in the Oregon Office of Child Care Central Background Registry (Criminal Background Check). Students must show evidence of MMR vaccination. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 121. Observation and Guidance I. 3 Credits.

Focuses on age-appropriate guidance and observations techniques for individual children six weeks to six years of age. Topics include the ongoing dynamics of relationships, how values and belief systems impact guidance decisions, and the linkages between observation and guidance plans for individual children. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 122I. Environments and Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers. 4 Credits.

Introduces the use of developmentally and culturally appropriate practices and family involvement in planning, selecting, and evaluating environments and curriculum for infants and toddlers in early learning settings. Reviews relationship-based care, routines, transitions and play with infants and toddlers. Includes planning and implementing indoor and outdoor environment curriculum for infants and toddlers based on written observations and an environmental assessment. Requires 10 hours of engagement/observations in an infant or toddler classroom. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 123P. Environments and Curriculum for Preschool. 4 Credits.

Introduces the use of developmentally and culturally appropriate practices and family involvement in planning, selecting, and evaluating environments and curriculum for preschoolers in early learning settings. Reviews relationship-based care, routines, transitions and play with preschoolers. Includes planning and implementing indoor and outdoor environment curriculum for preschoolers based on written observations and an environmental assessment. Requires 10 hours of engagement/observations in a licensed preschool classroom. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 124. Multicultural Practices: Exploring Our Views. 3 Credits.

Develops awareness of how personal experiences, belief systems, identities, and values impact work with children, families, and communities. Examines the impact of cultural, linguistic, social, and class identities and histories on inter-relationships in diverse populations. Explores techniques for incorporating other people's histories, values, and belief systems into child-family-community-centered practices. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 130A. Practicum Seminar 1. 2 Credits.

Reflects on the introductory skills necessary for supporting the total development of children, ages 6 weeks to 6 years. Focuses on the role of the teacher in implementing a quality early childhood education program. Approved practicum application required. Prerequisites: ECE 120, ECE 121, ECE 124, and department permission, and (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Corequisite: ECE 131A, ECE 133.

ECE 130B. Practicum Seminar 2. 2 Credits.

Builds on the previous practicum and seminar experiences and reflects on the intermediate skills necessary for supporting the total development of children, ages 6 weeks to 6 years. Focuses on the role of the teacher in implementing a quality early childhood education program. Approved practicum application required. Prerequisites: ECE 130A, (ECE 122I or ECE 123P), HEC 201, and department permission, (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Corequisite: ECE 131B, ECE 134.

ECE 130C. Practicum Seminar 3. 2 Credits.

Builds on the previous practicum and seminar experiences to review the advanced skills necessary for supporting the total development of children, ages 6 weeks to 6 years. Focuses on the role of the teacher in implementing a developmental program of early childhood education. Approved practicum application required. Prerequisites: ECE 130B, ECE 134, (ECE 122I and ECE 123P), and department permission, (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Corequisite: ECE 135.

ECE 131A. Practicum for Experienced Teachers 1. 3 Credits.

Improves and strengthens beginning level skills for working with children, infancy to six years of age in a group setting at student's work site. Includes the use of developmentally appropriate methods in recognizing and providing safe, responsive, and healthy environments. Approved practicum application required. Prerequisites: ECE 120, ECE 121, ECE 124, and department permission, (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Corequisite: ECE 130A.

ECE 131B. Practicum for Experienced Teachers 2. 3 Credits.

Improves and strengthens intermediate level skills for working with children from birth to 6 years of age. Includes the use of developmentally appropriate methods to support guidance and conflict resolution, schedule and routine planning, fundamental curriculum development, and environmental modification. Approved practicum application required. Prerequisites: (ECE 131A or ECE 133), (ECE 122I or ECE 123P), HEC 201, and department permission, (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Corequisite: ECE 130B.

ECE 132. Early Childhood Field Work. 2 Credits.

Offers opportunities to work under supervision in an approved worksite. Prerequisites: ECE 122I or ECE 123P, and (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 133. Practicum 1 in Early Childhood Education. 3 Credits.

Acquires beginning practical skills for working with children ages birth to 6 years of age in a group setting. Includes the use of developmentally appropriate methods in recognizing and supporting safe, healthy, responsive environments and curriculum. Approved practicum application required. Prerequisites: ECE 120, ECE 121, ECE 124, and department permission, (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Corequisite: ECE 130A.

ECE 134. Practicum 2 in Early Childhood Education. 3 Credits.

Builds on previous practicum and seminar courses to deepen the understanding of quality programing, and implement intermediate level skills to work with children ages birth - 6 years of age in a group setting. Includes the use of culturally and developmentally appropriate methods to support the overall learning environment and curriculum. Approved practicum application required. Prerequisites: ECE 133, ECE 130A, (ECE 122I or ECE 123P), and HEC 201, and department permission, (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Corequisite: ECE 130B.

ECE 135. Practicum 3 in Early Childhood Education. 3 Credits.

Builds on previous practicum and seminar courses to implement advanced level skills to work with children ages 6 weeks to 6 years of age in a group setting. Develops and facilitates an overall quality learning environment including the use of developmentally and culturally appropriate methods, curriculum, evaluation and design. Approved practicum application required. Prerequisites: ECE 134, ECE 130B, and (ECE 122I or 123P), and department permission, (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Corequisites: ECE 130C.

ECE 170. Coaching and Mentoring in Early Education and Family Studies. 1 Credit.

Explores the role of coaching and mentoring in facilitating the development of novice early education practitioners and in enhancing early childhood environments. Reviews models of coaching and mentoring. Audit available.

ECE 171A. Infant Toddler Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support. 1 Credit.

Explores Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (PBIS) system for infants and toddlers. Covers the identification of behavioral practices, instructional strategies, and intervention strategies for individual infants and toddlers. Audit available.

ECE 171B. Preschool Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support. 1 Credit.

Explores Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (PBIS) system for preschoolers. Covers the identification of behavioral practices, instructional strategies and intervention strategies for individual preschool age children. Audit available.

ECE 175A. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: Learning and Development. 1 Credit.

Covers growth and development of infants and toddlers ages birth - 3, including physical, cognitive, and language development. Audit available.

ECE 175C. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: Social/Emotional Growth. 1 Credit.

Covers social-emotional growth and socialization of infants and toddlers ages birth - 3, including development, temperament, responsible care, guidance and discipline, and supporting the needs of infants and toddlers. Audit available.

ECE 177. Tiny to Tall: Making Mixed Age Groupings Work. 1 Credit.

Covers working with mixed-age groups in early childhood settings, including children from infancy through elementary school age. Addresses the challenges and benefits of creating quality environments and programming for children of mixed ages. Audit available.

ECE 183. Seven Essential Life Skills Every Child Needs. 1 Credit.

Introduces seven life skills critical for young children's success which are: focus and self-control, perspective taking, communicating, making connections, critical thinking, taking on challenges, self-directed engaged learning. Audit available.

ECE 185. Planning Fun and Meaningful Field Trips for Young Children. 1 Credit.

Covers the positive benefits of field trips in early childhood programs, including field trip possibilities in the Portland area, developing field trip protocols, and problem-solving common field trip issues. Audit available.

ECE 186. Nature and Gardening with Young Children. 1 Credit.

Covers the many benefits of gardening and natural experiences for young children, including how to facilitate developmental opportunities across domains in an engaging and ever-changing context. Audit available.

ECE 189. Building Relationships with Infants, Toddlers, and Families. 1 Credit.

Covers ways in which caregivers can facilitate, support, and sustain strong individualized relationships with infants, toddlers, and their families in early education settings. Audit available.

ECE 195. Boys in Early Childhood Education. 1 Credit.

Explores the educational and social experiences specific to boys in early childhood programs. Covers teacher's views on boys' behaviors and the effect on their learning. Includes developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches to engage boys in the early learning environment and curriculum. Audit available.

ECE 196. Teaming and Communication in ECE Settings. 2 Credits.

Introduces the identification and utilization of different strategies to strengthen teaming and communication specific to the field of child and family studies. Covers culture and communication, including communicating with colleagues, staff and parents in early learning and social service environments. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 200. The Professional in Early Education and Family Studies. 3 Credits.

Covers history, current programs and practices, and future issues of early childhood education (ECE). Includes professionalism, historic and current issues, types of programs for young children, parent interaction, job opportunities, ethical/legal issues and community resources. Covers the development of a professional philosophy. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Prerequisite/concurrent: ECE 134 or ECE 131B. Audit available.

ECE 221. Observation and Guidance II. 3 Credits.

Examines tools for observing and recording behavior in early learning settings for children ages infants through six years of age. Builds on principles learned in ECE 121. Focuses on observation and guidance techniques for groups of children in addressing challenging behaviors. Covers the teacher's role in promoting development, including self-development. Prerequisites: ECE 121, and (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 224. Multicultural Practice: Curriculum & Implementation. 3 Credits.

Develops awareness of issues of culture and ethnicity as they relate to the early learning settings. Includes techniques for assessing, developing and implementing multicultural, anti-bias curriculum. Prerequisite: ECE 124, (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 232. Math and Science for Young Children. 3 Credits.

Explores strategies to actively engage infants through preschool-age children in science and math concepts. Covers planning experiences that are meaningful, challenging, developmentally and culturally appropriate for indoor and outdoor classrooms. Connects everyday knowledge and skills to math and science. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 234. Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Education. 3 Credits.

Covers special education for young children (birth through age 6) with or at risk for disabilities. Identifies the requirements within early intervention including eligibility in the special education service system, defining meaningful inclusion and instructional strategies, and legislative mandates. Explores strategies based on best practices in home visiting /working with parents and including children with special needs in early care and education settings. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 236. Language and Literacy in Early Childhood Education. 3 Credits.

Covers the design and usage of a variety of language and literacy development activities with young children. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

ECE 262. Health, Safety and Nutrition for the Young Child. 3 Credits.

Explores health, nutrition, and safety issues for children ages infant through preschool. Includes state licensing requirements in early care and education settings, family-style eating practices, USDA food program requirements, safe environments for children, healthy lifestyle practices, and childhood illness. Prerequisites: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.

HEC 140. Introduction to Family Life Education. 3 Credits.

Introduces an overview of the field of Family Life Education (FLE). Covers theory, methods, and contexts of family life education, including family diversity, sexuality education, and parenting education. Audit available.

HEC 201. Family Partnerships in Education. 3 Credits.

Introduces the study of family behavior, values, and attitudes. Covers the historical, cultural, and socioeconomic influences on family development, including ecological systems, demographic trends, diversity, contemporary issues and public policy. Audit available.

HEC 212. Parent-Child Relations. 3 Credits.

Introduces the social, developmental, and cultural nature of parenting. Covers parent-child relationships in social contexts, the work of parenting, and issues facing contemporary parents and children. Audit available.

HEC 226. Child Development. 4 Credits.

Covers basic theories, research and principles of physical, cognitive, language, social and emotional development of children from the prenatal period through adolescence. Includes observation and classroom processes. Prerequisite: (WR 115 and RD 115) or IRW 115 and MTH 20 or equivalent placement. Audit available.
This course fulfills the following GE requirements: Social Sciences/SS